Is epistasis an example of pleiotropy?
Pleiotropy, in which one mutation causes multiple phenotypes, has traditionally been seen as a deviation from the conventional observation in which one gene affects one phenotype. Epistasis, or gene-gene interaction, has also been treated as an exception to the Mendelian one gene-one phenotype paradigm.
What is an example of pleiotropy?
One of the most widely cited examples of pleiotropy in humans is phenylketonuria (PKU). This disorder is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, which is necessary to convert the essential amino acid phenylalanine to tyrosine.
What is a example of epistasis?
An example of epistasis is pigmentation in mice. The wild-type coat color, agouti (AA), is dominant to solid-colored fur (aa). However, a separate gene (C) is necessary for pigment production.
How can I remember pleiotropy?
Terms to Remember
- Pleiotropy: one gene controls the phenotype of unrelated traits.
- Genotype: this tells you what the genes and DNA of an organism will look like.
- Phenotype: the way in which genes are expressed.
- Mutation: gene changes or alterations.
- Antagonistic Pleiotropy: some traits are beneficial while others are not.
What is epistasis Khan Academy?
Variations involving multiple genes For example: Complementary genes. Recessive alleles of two different genes may give the same phenotype. Epistasis. The alleles of one gene may mask or conceal the alleles of another gene.
What is pleiotropy in biology?
Pleiotropy is the well-established phenomenon of a single gene affecting multiple traits. It has long played a central role in theoretical, experimental, and clinical research in genetics, development, molecular biology, evolution, and medicine.
What is the basis of pleiotropy?
Thus, pleiotropy is generally caused by a single molecular function involved in multiple biological processes. We also provide genomewide evidence that the evolutionary conservation of genes and gene sequences positively correlates with the level of gene pleiotropy.
What is the best description of epistasis?
Epistasis is the interaction between genes that influences a phenotype. Genes can either mask each other so that one is considered “dominant” or they can combine to produce a new trait. It is the conditional relationship between two genes that can determine a single phenotype of some traits.
What is pleiotropy in bio?
Pleiotropy (biology definition): the condition of having multiple effects. In genetics, it refers to a single gene controlling or influencing multiple (and possibly unrelated) phenotypic traits.
What are differences between dominant and recessive epistasis?
Dominant Epistasis. Dominant epistasis occurs when a dominant allele of particular locus masks both dominant and recessive alleles at another locus.
Do all polygenic traits involve epistasis?
While a polygenic phenotype can occur without epistasis, if you have epistasis you must be dealing with a polygenic phenotype. Polygenic just means that there are multiple genes involved in a phenotype. Epistasis refers to situations where one allele masks the phenotypic effect of one or more alleles of another gene.
What is the opposite of epistasis?
epistasis A situation in which an allele of one gene (called the epistatic gene) prevents the expression of all allelic alternatives of another gene. The opposite situation is called hypostasis. A Dictionary of Plant Sciences MICHAEL ALLABY
What is the opposite of pleiotropy?
Pleiotropy is actually more common than its opposite, since in a complex organism, a protein from a single gene is likely to be expressed in more than one tissue, and the cascade of problems caused by a mutation is likely to lead to numerous complications throughout the organism.